Former mighty royal medieval fortress and the residence of the Russian tsars, currently, the Kremlin is the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation, as well as one of the largest and most fascinating open-air museums in the world. It is an architectural ensemble of unique beauty which took its present shape during the 15th-20th centuries and is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
A guided walking tour around the Kremlin territory inside the monumental red brick walls and towers offers an opportunity to admire the highlights of the Kremlin: the Cathedral Square with its gold-domed cathedrals, noted for their marvelous architecture and richly decorated interiors; the Tsar Cannon and the Tsar Bell, stunning examples of the art of old Russian casting; the Grand Kremlin Palace, former imperial residence and nowadays official gala reception quarters; historical buildings of the Senate and the Arsenal; and the 20th century Palace of Congresses, the legacy of the Soviet Union era.
The tour is completed with an exploration of the architectural complex of the Cathedral Square including visits of the Assumption Cathedral, the ancient state cathedral of Russia and the place of royal weddings and coronation ceremonies as well as the burial place of Russian Metropolitans and Patriarchs; the Archangel's Cathedral, the dynastic necropolis of Moscow Princes and Tsars; the Annunciation Cathedral, the royal home church and treasury, where the sacraments of marriage and baptism were performed; the Church of Laying Our Lady's Holy Robe, the home church of Russian Metropolitans and Patriarchs; the Patriarch's Palace, a rare example of civil architecture of the mid-17th century.
The Moscow Kremlin represents the history of Russia in stone and is a unique historical and cultural museum-reserve, which contains numerous monuments from different centuries: the palaces of Russian tsars, Metropolitans and Patriarchs, as well as the modern official residence of the President of the Russian Federation. The oldest square of Moscow, the Cathedral Square, houses a unique architectural and urban ensemble, with exceptional testaments of the Old Russian architecture: the Assumption, the Annunciation and the Archangel Cathedrals, the Church of Laying Our Lady's Holy Robe, the Patriarch's Palace, the complex of the Ivan the Great Bell-tower.